||Attributing authorship is an important
(and ethical) component for professional writing. For FIRST YEARS
documents, whether written by students or faculty, we use APA Style conventions
to document quotations or original data/materials written by others.
Although FIRST YEARS expects you to document authorship,
we do not expect a perfect rendering of the APA stylesheet formats.
Substance, demonstrating good thinking, is always what your instructors
are looking for.
The examples below demonstrate APA-documented citations. More examples
are available at:
the Son of Citation Machine website generates APA (and other style) citations
when you fill in author, etc.
You can use it to check yourself: Son
of Citation Machine
Citations within the text body
Instead of superscripted numbers described in "footnotes" or "endnotes,"
APA uses inline, or parenthetical, references containing
the author's last name, date published and, if quoted,
page number(s). The FIRST YEARS course material in Sakai
is full APA citations, so pay attention to them as you go through your
units. Citing sources will soon become second-nature to you.
In the next section, we see how these same inline citations are documented
in an ending reference section. The format of the ending references depend
on the type of resource - journal, book, forum posting, etc. - from which
the cited material is drawn.
One author: Here is a sentence (Cochenour, 2005) showing an inline
Few authors: Tharpe and Haynes (2004) stated ... sentence showing
another type of inline citation.
Multiple authors, same article/too many to list: Here is a sentence
(Kirk et al., 1997) showing an inline citation.
Showing a quote: Here is a sentence "containing quoted material"
(Kirk et al., 1997, p. 105).
Organizational author: Here is a sentence (ASHA, 1991) showing an
No date: Here is a sentence (ASHA, n.d.) showing an inline citation.
Multiple authors, different articles: Here is a sentence (Cochenour,
2005; Kirk et al., 1997; Santos &
Reese, 1999; Roush, 2001) showing multiple sources. Note
the use of the ampersand/& for multiple authors.
Same author with no uniquely distinguishing date:
Here is a sentence (FIRST YEARS, 2008a)
showing an inline citation.
Here is another sentence (FIRST YEARS, 2008b)
showing an inline citation, using a different FIRST YEARS
resource, which happens to have the same date as above. Notice the use
of a and b to
distinguish between the two.
FIRST YEARS course material in Sakai: Here is a sentence
(FIRST YEARS, 2009a) showing an inline citation.
Course learning modules/units in Sakai are always edited/revised for new
course offerings. Therefore, use the current year for citations.
Discussion board/forum postings in Sakai: Here is a sentence (Janelle,
2010) showing an inline citation.
Discussion board/forum postings in Sakai: Classmate-lastname (2007)
stated ... showing another type of inline citation.
Citations within the ending reference section
Full documentation, including page numbers for printed materials, appears
in an end reference section. These endnote sections are always alphabetized
by author name, whether corporate or individual author, or if the author
is not present/known, by title. If there are multiple listings for the
author, these are arranged by date within author name. The References section
at the end of each Sakai module/unit is an excellent example for
doing your end references.
journal title needed.
Chapter in a book with an editor: Italicized
book title needed.
Cochenour, L. (2005, November/December). The FIRST YEARS certificate
program: Professional development through distance education.
number, if present), page numbers"
book title needed.
Tharpe, A.M. & Haynes, D. (2004). Auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony:
A mountain or a molehill? In R. Seewald and J. Bamford (Eds.), A
Sound Foundation Through Early Amplification, Proceedings of the Third
International Pediatric Conference (pp. 271–277). Switzerland: Phonak.
Organizational publication: Italicized
journal title needed.
Kirk, K.I., Diefendorf, A.O., Pisoni, D.B., & Robbins, A.M. (1997).
Speech Perception in Children in Audiological Evaluation and Management
and Speech Perception Assessment (pp. 101-132). San Diego: Singular
With editor(s)/chapter in a book: Italicized
book title needed.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1991). Guidelines for the
audiologic assessment of children from birth through thirty-six months
of age. ASHA, 33 (Suppl. 5), 37-43.
Material retrieved from the web, including all FIRST YEARS reference
documents (which begin with http://firstyears.org),
include retrieval dates for the URLs
as well as publication dates. The retrieval dates can have several formats
- e.g. 8/8/09, 8/8/2009, or August 8, 2009 or Aug. 8, 2009.
Roush, J. (2001). Screening for hearing loss and otitis media: Basic principles.
In J. Roush (Ed.),
Screening for hearing loss and otitis media in children
(pp. 18-19). San Diego: Singular Publishing Group.
Use the copy-paste technique
to capture the complete URL, to avoid mis-typing the web address.
On Web pages, you may have to scroll down to find a "date last published."
For example, FIRST YEARS reference documents always have the last-updated
date at the bottom, as shown immediately below.
||Web retrieval: Italicized
Web retrieval of FIRST YEARS reference documents. All
these begin with http://firstyears.org/ ... (Note
the chronological ordering for "same author" listings and the use of a,b,
c ... if the same
author in the same
Citing Materials in Sakai
Santos, R.M. & Reese, D. (1999). Selecting culturally and linguistically
appropriate materials: Suggestions for service providers (ERIC Digest/ERIC
No. EDO-PS-99-6). University of Illinois: Champaign, IL. Retrieved April
28, 2002, from http://ericeece.org (Note that there
are no periods at the end of a copy-pasted electronic citation.)
FIRST YEARS materials posted in Sakai present some unique challenges!
Typically, these include material from forum postings, course announcements,
and course units/class notes. For these, you do not
copy-paste the URLs.
Janelle, C. (2/4/10). "Little girl insights." Online forum message, posted
in FIRST YEARS course: Literacy Development in Young Children with
Robertson, L. (8/11/09). "AG Bell Presentation." Online course announcement,
posted in FIRST YEARS course: Literacy Development in Young Children
with Hearing Loss.
Multiple authors for course units:
1. Authors for the class notes/units in Sakai are listed on the
introduction page for that particular unit, as shown.
2. *The course units are revised/updated each year,
thus you should always include the current year's date.
One author for course:
FIRST YEARS. (2012a*).
Topics in Speech and Hearing: A Survey. Unit
2. Audiology Interpretation: Hearing Loss. (Authors: Judith Gravel,
Heather Porter, & Anne Marie Tharpe). (course
name - in italics ) (unit
FIRST YEARS. (2012b*). Literacy Development
in Young Children with Hearing Loss. Unit 4. Learning to Read: How
to 'Normalize' the Process. (Author: Lyn Robertson).